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    فصلنامه زمين شناسي ايران


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      1 - Mineralogy, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and genesis of magnetite-apatite mineralization in the southwest of Hormuz Island, Iran
      Masoud Alipour-Asll عاطفه  فخری دودوئی
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      The study area is located about 8 km south of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province. This area is in the south of the Zagros folded zone and part of the Hormuz series. The late Precambrian-early Cambrian rocks comprise intercalations of rhyolite-rhyodacite lava and tuff, c Full Text
      The study area is located about 8 km south of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province. This area is in the south of the Zagros folded zone and part of the Hormuz series. The late Precambrian-early Cambrian rocks comprise intercalations of rhyolite-rhyodacite lava and tuff, crystal ¬tuff, tuffaceous ¬shale, sandstone and evaporite layers. Iron mineralization along with apatite are found as dike, massive, vein-veinlets and disseminated forms in tuffaceous shale and crystalline tuff rock units. Based on iron oxides and apatite contents, mineralization can be divided into iron-oxides (mainly magnetite), iron oxides- apatite and apatite types. The main ore-forming minerals include magnetite, oligist, hematite, goethite and limonite, apatite, and gangue minerals are calcite, quartz and clay minerals. The Hormuz Island ores have a high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) and the total amount of REE in apatite-rich ores is up to 3%. The geochemical studies show that a strong positive correlation between P and REE. Comparison of the chondrite-normalized REE pattern of the Hormuz magnetite-apatite ores with those from the Bafq-Posht-e-Badam block and the Kiruna type iron ore deposits represent genetic similarity of mineralization. The homogenization temperature in the two-phased liquid and vapor (L+V) fluids in apatite minerals vary from 309 to 565°C (average 388°C), and salinity varies between 14.16 to 33.87 (20/80) wt.% NaCl. Finally, based on the field geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and fluid inclusion features, the Hormuz magnetite-apatite mineralization is classified in the Kiruna-type magnetite-apatite deposits group with magmatic-hydrothermal origin. Manuscript Document

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      2 - Petrology of Oigocene volcanic rocks in the Deh Tah area, south of Dehuk, Lut Block
      Morteza Khalatbari نرمین بانه ای محمد فریدی
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      The study area in the south of Deh Tah, Lut Block comprise Oligocene volcanic rocks which are composed of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite and rhyolite. These lavas have porphyric to porphyritic textures with abundant amphibole phenocrysts. Most of the Oligocene lavas d Full Text
      The study area in the south of Deh Tah, Lut Block comprise Oligocene volcanic rocks which are composed of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite and rhyolite. These lavas have porphyric to porphyritic textures with abundant amphibole phenocrysts. Most of the Oligocene lavas display calck alkaline to high-K calck alkaline magmatic affinities. In the binary diagrams, the andesitic to trachyandesitic samples cluster far away from the trachydacitic, dacitic and rhyolitic samples suggesting that they were not afftected only by magmatic differentiation. The REE patterns and spider diagrams show enrichement in light ion litophile element (LILE) and hight field strength element (HFSE) depletion. The normalized patterns of the andesite to trachyandsite have a reliable overlap with oceanic island basalt (OIB). The patterns of the acidic lavas are correlated with the patterns of continental crust. These geochemical evidence indicate that the andesitic to trachyandesitic lavas are generated from partial melting of lithospheric mantle which previously metasomatized by subduction components (melt-fluids). Partial melting of the continental crust has an important role in generation of the acidic lavas. Based on geological setting and geochemical data, it seems that the Oligocene volcanic rocks formed in a post-collision zone, due to thinning of the continental lithosphere in Lut Block. This process is probably related to lithospheric delamination which occurs in a post-collisional zone in Lut Block, as a part of the Alpine-Hymalaya orogenic belt. Manuscript Document

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      3 - Comparison of the results of linear and non-linear geostatistical methods for modeling and evaluation of Saveh North-Narbaghi copper ore reserve
      Reza Ahmadi
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      In this research, Saveh North-Narbaghi copper deposit was evaluated by using linear and nonlinear geostatistical methods and their results were compared. To achieve the goal, in the first step, average grade and ore reserve were calculated using log-kriging and indicato Full Text
      In this research, Saveh North-Narbaghi copper deposit was evaluated by using linear and nonlinear geostatistical methods and their results were compared. To achieve the goal, in the first step, average grade and ore reserve were calculated using log-kriging and indicator kriging with cut off grades of 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 (ppm) by SGeMS2. Then the deposit was simulated by Datamine software and the average grade and ore reserve were estimated through ordinary kriging method. The results of the research show that the differences between log-Kriging and ordinary Kriging with applied cut off grades for the ore reserve are 0.96%, 19.18%, 9.81% and 10.44% respectively. Also, the discrepancy between indicator Kriging and ordinary kriging methods with applied cut off grades are 13.45%, 9.29%, 14.73% and 11.63% respectively. In general, the accuracy of the results and research performance are understood from the proximity of the results of average grade and amount of ore reserve estimation employed by all three methods. However, the average grade with different cut off grades by multiple indicator Kriging method is higher than the other methods due to lower blending ore and gangue in this method and high degree of purity of ore blocks compared with the other methods. Also, the reason of overestimation obtained by ordinary block kriging using Datamine software is related to the user's intervention in determining the mineralized intervals in the boreholes on the basis of experience and recognition of the deposit condition. Manuscript Document

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      4 - Geochemistry and petrology of Qareh-Dash rhyolites from Shahindej- NW Iran: Geochemical features of post- collision volcanism
      Masoumeh Ahangari معصومه  نظری Mohsen Moazzen
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      Qareh-Dash rhyolites from the Shahindej area are peraluminous rocks with high SiO2 and K2O contents. These rocks are mainly composed of quartz, K- feldspar and rare plagioclase phenocrysts in a fine-grained K-feldspar rich matrix. Geochemically, Qareh-Dash rhyolites sho Full Text
      Qareh-Dash rhyolites from the Shahindej area are peraluminous rocks with high SiO2 and K2O contents. These rocks are mainly composed of quartz, K- feldspar and rare plagioclase phenocrysts in a fine-grained K-feldspar rich matrix. Geochemically, Qareh-Dash rhyolites show enrichment in LREEs and LILEs and depletion in HREEs. Field studies, textural and petrographical relations, along with whole rock geochemistry, demonstrate that the parental magma of the Qareh-Dash rhyolites was originated from the crust. The composition of the parental magma was modified due to fractional crystallization of plagioclase and titanomagnetite evidenced by negative Eu, Sr and Ti anomalies in multielement diagrams. The chemical characteristics of Qareh- Dash rhyolites such as Rb/Nb, K/Rb, Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and Ga/Al ratios are similar to A-Type granites/ rhyolites associated with post- collision tectonic settings. According to Precambrian age for the Qareh-Dash rhyolites, formation of these rocks might be related to extensional phases which were probably taken place after closure of proto- Thetys Ocean. Manuscript Document

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      5 - Geology, alteration and mineralization studies of the Barmolk porphyry copper deposit (North of Varzeghan – East Azarbaijan Province)
      علیرضا  روان¬خواه Mohsen Moayyed علی  لطفی¬بخش
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      Exploration area of Barmolk is located in the northwest of the country, East Azarbaijan province and northeast of the Varzeghan county. Northern outcrops of the area consist of Eocene volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks and Oligocene porphyry quartzmonzonite intrusion bod Full Text
      Exploration area of Barmolk is located in the northwest of the country, East Azarbaijan province and northeast of the Varzeghan county. Northern outcrops of the area consist of Eocene volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks and Oligocene porphyry quartzmonzonite intrusion bodies, which are cut off by first and second generation non-mineralized dikes. Towards to the north, this mass is in contact with upper Cretaceous-Paleocene carbonate-flysch deposits. In addition, Plio-Quaternary injection of dacite subvolcanic domes and eruption of alkaline basalt in the studied area have taken place. Kighal porphyry extends to the southwest of Barmolk area. Phyllic, propylitic and argillic hydrothermal alterations were identified in this mass, but potassic alteration was not observed. This indicates that the Barmolk porphyry is not an independent mass and is the margin of Kighal porphyry mass. The main texture in this mass is porphyritic with fine-graind matrix. Mineralization appears to be disseminated, vein-veinlet and fracture surface filling including chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrite. Pyrite content in this mass is low, and this is one of the reasons for the lack of supergene enrichment zone. Due to the presence of lead and zinc mineralization mostly in the form of vein-veinlet in the first-generation quartzdiorite dikes (DK1) and with regards to the injection of these dikes into Sungun after supergene zone formation, the mineralization of lead and zinc can be attributed to the epithermal processes, related to the Barmolk intrusive mass. Consequently, the latter mineralization occurred after the injection of first-generation quartzdiorite dikes. Manuscript Document

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      6 - Petrology and geochemistry of Siahjangal ophiolite, northeastern Taftan volcano
      saeideh Nikbakht حبیب بیابانگرد Sasan Baghari
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      Siahjangal ophiolite is located in the North and Northeastern part of Taftan volcano in the Sistan Suture Zone (SSZ). This ophiolite (Upper Cretaceous) is exposed in the Flysch rocks (Eocene). Harzburgite, lherzolite, serpentine, spilite and gabbro are major rocks in th Full Text
      Siahjangal ophiolite is located in the North and Northeastern part of Taftan volcano in the Sistan Suture Zone (SSZ). This ophiolite (Upper Cretaceous) is exposed in the Flysch rocks (Eocene). Harzburgite, lherzolite, serpentine, spilite and gabbro are major rocks in this ophiolite. Ultramafic units have olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene minerals. Mafic units have clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Ultramafic rocks have mainly granular and gabbro rocks have ophitic, sub-ophitic and granular textures. Geochemical verities of major, minor and rare earth elements in the Siahjangal ophiolite revealed that the ultrabasic and basic rocks were formed due to partial melting than crystal differentiation. REE elements diagrams normalized to the Chondrite and MORB and their comparison with the normal and enriched MORBs, chemical differentiation diagrams, the ratios of accessory elements and changes of Zr, Nb, Y, U, Ti elements against Zr / Nb ratio all indicates the similarity to N-MORB. Transition elements diagrams (V, Co, Cr, Ni) against La / Ce ratio and the ratio of (La / Yb) N, La / Yb, La / Ce versus (La / Sm) N, show that these ratios compared with N-MORB and E-MORB represent enrichment and geochemical similarities to N-MORB. Tectonomagmatic diagrams show Siahjangal ophiolite belongs to supra-subduction zone.   Manuscript Document

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      7 - Sudden drowning of the Late Cretaceous carbonate platform in central Zagros basin: a case study from the shaley Laffan Member in one of the Oil Fields of Abadan Plain, SW Iran
      maryam kianifard علی حسین  جلیلیان nasser arzani
      Issue 56 , Volume 14 , Winter 2021
      Rapid sea-level rise and drowning of carbonate platforms is one of the important geological events in the Late Cretaceous and after the Turonian global unconformity. This transgression in central and western Zagros Basin is represented as shaley sediments of the Laffan Full Text
      Rapid sea-level rise and drowning of carbonate platforms is one of the important geological events in the Late Cretaceous and after the Turonian global unconformity. This transgression in central and western Zagros Basin is represented as shaley sediments of the Laffan Member, which were deposited over the Sarvak Formation. The stratigraphic position and the occurrence of the Charophytes-Ostracods biozone indicate the late Cretaceous, Coniacian age for the Laffan Member, which is stratigraphically equivalent to the Surgah Formation in Lurestan area in the west of Iran. The Laffan Member is mainly shaley in lithology with intercalations of thin-bedded argillaceous limestones and is the caprock over the reservoir of the Sarvak Formation in some oil fields in SW Zagros. Microfacies, sedimentary environments, biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of the Laffan Member in two wells of Azadegan Oil Field located in Abadan Plain were investigated. Petrographic data revealed the presence of a shaley facies and two carbonate microfacies including charophitic mudstone-wackestone to bioclastic planktonic foraminiferal wackestone. These microfacies were deposited in transitional-brackish to deep marine environments. Marine transgression over the eroded palaeotopography of the Cenomanian-Toronian carbonates resulted in estuaries as channels and transitional environments. In these estuaries, mixture of the fresh and marine waters resulted in deposition of the lower parts of the Laffan Member and graded upward into the marine deposits of the upper parts of this Member.The sudden change of shallow-transitional facies to deep marine sediments in the Laffan Member indicates drowning of the carbonate platform of central Zagros Basin in Coniacian. The evidence like erosional base, deepening-upward sequences, frequency of mudstone facies (shale) and continuity with marine carbonates confirm this conclusion. Investigation of vertical changes of the microfacies with gama-ray well log data indicate the Laffan Member is part of a sequence as lowstand deposits (LST), transgressive deposits (TST) which grade upwards into maximum flooding surface (MFS) and high-stand deposits (HST) which comprise a third-order sequence. This sequence begins with an erosional unconformity and follows up with the formation of the estuary and deep sea sediments. The latter package is covered with the carbonate sediments of the lower part of the Ilam Formation (Santonian) which represents carbonate platform deposits of high-stand system track (HST). Manuscript Document
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      1 - Study of mineral chemistry, geothermobarometry and tectonic setting of gabbroic rocks from north-west Hamedan, Iran
      عادل ساکی Hooshang Pourkaseb Alireza زراسوندی Milad Jahani Maryam Dorani
      Issue 53 , Volume 14 , Spring 2020
      The study area is geologically located in the northern area of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Based on petrographic study, the main minerals consists of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole and biotite and the accessory minerals are chlorite, muscovite, ilmenite and Full Text
      The study area is geologically located in the northern area of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Based on petrographic study, the main minerals consists of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole and biotite and the accessory minerals are chlorite, muscovite, ilmenite and zircon. The obtained results from the mineral chemistry in this study indicate that the amphiboles are calcic amphiboles, and in terms of chemical composition they can be called pargasit, tschermakite and magnesiohomblende. Plagioclases are also andesian. Due to the low Na2O content, it can be concluded, that tectonically these amphiboles are of S-Amph type and are related to the subduction zones. Based on the high levels of Al2O3, the origin of amphiboles is mantle-type. Therefore, due to the ratio of Fetot (Fetot + Mg+2) to AlIv, which is less than 0.6, the oxygen fugacity was high. On the other hand, the water levels vary from 2 to 2.3 for hornblende crystallization. Different methods were used to perform thermobarometry, the best of which showed that the formation temperature of gabbroic mass has been in the range of 700°C (in average) and a pressure of 4.45- 7.52 Kb. According to the estimated pressures, the magma was originated at a depth of 25-30 Km, which is near the Moho discontinuity. Manuscript Document

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      2 - Seismic hazard assessment of the city of Khoy using deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis approaches
      Nasim Rahmani  Abasfam
      Issue 30 , Volume 8 , Summer 2014
      Construction of new cities or development of old towns in an area requires geological and geophysical (seismic) studies. The city of Khoy is one of the developing cities that have to be study. Therefore, the Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA Full Text
      Construction of new cities or development of old towns in an area requires geological and geophysical (seismic) studies. The city of Khoy is one of the developing cities that have to be study. Therefore, the Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA and PSHA) approaches have been used to assess seismic hazards and earthquake risk in the city. For this purpose, analyses have been carried out considering historic and instrumented earthquakes, geologic and seismotectonic parameters of the region covering a radius of 100 km with the city of Khoy in the center. Therefore, the main faults and fault zones in the study area were studied and length and distance of each fault from the center of the city of Khoy was calculated. At the next step, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) have been measured using both DSHA and PSHA approaches and also equations presented by different researchers. DSHA Results show that the MCE and PGA values are 6.5 and 0.31g, respectively. PSHA results indicated that the MCE evaluated value is 6.1 for a 0.64 probability in a 50-years period. The period of this earthquake is 110 years and its probability will be 0.009 per a year. The occurrence probability of earthquakes with magnitude equal or greater than 7.1 is 10% and for earthquakes with magnitude equal or greater than 6.3 is 50% for the study area. Manuscript Document

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      3 - Introduction of Mari Copper Deposit as a Stratabound Manto-Type Copper Deposit in Tarom Zone, Northwest of Iran
      Mehadi Moradi Sajad Maghfori Mohsen Moayyed Vahid Faridasl
      Issue 38 , Volume 10 , Summer 2016
      Similar to other deposits of this type in the world, three major stages could be considered for mineralization in Mari copper deposit. The Mari Copper deposit is located in the northwest of Iran and Tarom metallogenic zone in the north of Zanjan. The ore-body is strata- Full Text
      Similar to other deposits of this type in the world, three major stages could be considered for mineralization in Mari copper deposit. The Mari Copper deposit is located in the northwest of Iran and Tarom metallogenic zone in the north of Zanjan. The ore-body is strata-bound and hosted by the Eocene mega-porphyritic andesites. The major copper sulfides are bornite, chalcocite, and chalcopyrite associated mainly with pyrite that represent open-space filling, disseminated, vein-veinlet, and replacement textures. The volcanic rocks of the study area mostly represent intermediate to acidic composition with high potassium shoshonitic magmatic series related to intra-arc rift environments. Wall rock alterations include carbonatization, chloritization, epidotization, and sericitization. The abundances of Cu and Ag in fresh mega-porphyritic andesite are up to 3200 and 216 ppm respectively. Based on the main characteristics of Mari ore body such as tectonic setting, host rock, strata-bound form, mineralogy, metal content, and wall rock alterations and comparison of these features with Manto - type copper deposits, Mari Cu deposit can be introduced as a Manto -type Cu deposit in NW Iran. The first stage includes submarine volcanic activity and eruption of mega-porphyritic andesitic lava associated with regional propylitic alteration. In the second stage, the early diagenesis and the activity of sulfate-reducing micro-organisms resulted in the generation of pyrite in the form of open-space filling and disseminated in the mega-porphyritic andesite. Finally, in the third stage, increasing of the thickness of sediments, basin subsidence, and burial diagenesis accompanied with the entry of metal-rich fluids into the reduced host rock, caused the replacement of the first stage pyrites by copper sulfides and mineralization in the Mari deposit. Manuscript Document

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      4 - Geochemistry and origin of orogenic gold in Qolqoleh area, Kurdistan: using fluid inclusion and stable isotope methods
       Taghipour  Makizadeh فرهاد  احمدنژاد
      Issue 30 , Volume 8 , Summer 2014
      The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt, about 50 km south-west of Saqqez. The rocks in the vicinity of the Qolqoleh deposit consist predominantly of Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of phyllite, meta-l Full Text
      The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt, about 50 km south-west of Saqqez. The rocks in the vicinity of the Qolqoleh deposit consist predominantly of Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of phyllite, meta-limestone, cholorite- sericite schist, metavolcanic and granitic intrusive rocks that have undergone greenschist facies metamorphism. Geochemical studies indicate that gold mineralization occur in the sulfide-quartz veins. Based on the number of phases present at room temperature and their microthermometric behavior, three fluid inclusion types were recognized: type I mono phase aqueous inclusions, type II two-phase aqueous inclusions (aqueous + vapor), that based on Th could be subdivided into two groups: type IIa show salinities of 5–13 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 205 to 255 °C. Type IIb with salinities of 15–19 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 335 to 385 C. Type III three-phase shows carbonic–aqueous inclusions (aqueous–LCO2–VCO2) with salinities of 9–13 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 345–385 °C. Furthermore, the mean values of density of ore-forming fluids, pressure and depth of mineralization are 0.79-0.93 gr/cm3, 2 Kbar and 7 Km respectively. On the basis of these data, the Qolqoleh gold deposit is categorized in meso zonal orogenic gold deposit. The δ_0^18 values of the ore-forming fluids are in the range of 7.2‰ to 8‰ and the D values are from -35.27‰ to -40.23‰, which indicate a source of deep-originated metamorphic water that is partially mixed with shallow meteoric water. The change of tectonic regime from compressional to extensional in association with the continuously increasing geothermal gradient, results in remobilization of large amounts of metamorphic fluids. Mixing of ascending orogenic drive fluids with descending meteoric fluids led to deposition of gold by sulfide minerals. Manuscript Document

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      5 - Evaluation of the environmental impacts of ore by means of pastakia method (case study: bafgh north anomaly iron ore)
      Lamberini Papadopoulou Mohammad reza  Elmi Ali reza ehsanzadeh سجاد  بهرامی
      Issue 36 , Volume 9 , Winter 2020
      Evaluating the environmental effects is one of the appropriate ways to achieve the sustainable development that can be considered as a planning tool for managers and programmers. The environmental impacts of Bafgh Anomaly Iron ore have been studied. In this regard, the Full Text
      Evaluating the environmental effects is one of the appropriate ways to achieve the sustainable development that can be considered as a planning tool for managers and programmers. The environmental impacts of Bafgh Anomaly Iron ore have been studied. In this regard, the most important environmental and economical-social factors that are influenced by project were identified by preparing the checklist from experts and proficient’s opinions. Subsequently, based on the Pastakia matrix method, the environmental impact assessment of project was carried out in both construction and exploitation steps. Results show that 2 positive medium effects, 1 positive low effect, 4 positive negligible effects, 7 negative negligible effects, 2 negative low effects and 3 negative medium effects are observed in environments in structural step, while 2 positive medium effects, 2 positive low effects, 3 positive negligible effects, 5 negative negligible effects, 2 negative low effects and 3 negative medium effects exist in exploitation step. Also, the environmental management and monitoring was prepared for all divisions, so that, in physical division, the air, soil and sound parameters should be continuously measured, in biological division, diversity, density, regeneration and migration of and fauna and flora should be controlled seasonally, and also the leakage and dispersion of sewages and wastes and dusts should be continuously monitored. About natural events, crisis management and risk evaluation should be done seasonally. Also, Public contribution and attaining satisfaction of society and their continuous notification and increasing the environmental knowledge of staff should be performed. Manuscript Document

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      6 - Modeling and interpretation of ground magnetic data associated geothermal resources, north -west of Delijan
      Issue 34 , Volume 9 , Summer 2015
      Existence of hot springs and geological evidences of north-west of Delijan area indicate that there is an important geothermal system in the depths of study area. In order to investigation geothermal of this area and delineation of geothermal structures with significant Full Text
      Existence of hot springs and geological evidences of north-west of Delijan area indicate that there is an important geothermal system in the depths of study area. In order to investigation geothermal of this area and delineation of geothermal structures with significant magnetic response, a ground magnetic survey was carried out over the hot springs which cover about 300 km2 in 2011. Necessary corrections and reductions were applied over the data. Then investigated the structures associated to the geothermal system using different magnetic map. It was revealed that a main magnetic anomaly in the area and estimated its depth and structural index using Euler method. Results of applying this method indicates a broad magnetic source almost in the depth of more than 2000 m. After Euler method, two other methods applyied over the data: forward modeling and 3D inversion using Model Vision software and Mag3D code, respectively were applied. Mag3D code using of the Li and Oldenburg algorithm gives the best answer based on iteration. Results of these methods show a broad magnetic source in the depth of between 2500 and 5000 m which can be interpreted as the heat source for geothermal system in the area. Results of this work have a good correlation with the known geological evidences. Manuscript Document

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      7 - Probable Tsunami in the south Caspian Sea by a large earthquake!
      Issue 32 , Volume 8 , Winter 2015
      The South Caspian basin is surrounded by the Central Alborz mountain range in South and Talesh Mountain in its south western side respectively. The Central Alborz with E-W and Talesh with NS trends which bounding the Caspian Sea to the south and south west, as an active Full Text
      The South Caspian basin is surrounded by the Central Alborz mountain range in South and Talesh Mountain in its south western side respectively. The Central Alborz with E-W and Talesh with NS trends which bounding the Caspian Sea to the south and south west, as an active terrain belonging to the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. The Khazar (Caspian) fault, with about 450 kilometres long, and Astara fault, 110km long appear as the northern border of the Central Alborz and eastern border of the Talesh chain where Mesozoic and Paleogene rock units overthrust on the young deposits of the South Caspian plain. Based on morphotectonics and paleoseismologic studies, we suggest that a major part of the present shortening in Alborz is concentrated on the northern face of the chain along the Khazar fault zone; it is however worth noting that this contact might be located further to the North under the sea. This border can be interpreted as frontal contact between Alborz and the South-Caspian basin. A recent stratigraphic study on the Holocene –Pleistocene in East of the Haraz valley, suggests an incision rate of 1.25 mm/yr as calculated for the last 12 Kyr. If it is assumed that the incision is related to the vertical component along the Khazar fault, the horizontal N-S shortening along this fault would be 2.5 mm/yr (for a 35° S-dipping fault). This is only 1/10th of the total shortening of Alborz, estimated 5 ± 2 mm/yr. The Astara fault as major active fault system in south west of the SCB, based on the seismic and geophysical observation it seems propagated under the sea as well as the Khazar fault. Many earthquakes may have been caused by the activity of various branches of these fault systems in land or sea parts of the SCB. On the basis of the basin geometry, propagated faults to north or east and their land slope, besides more than 20 km thickness of Neogene and Quaternary deposits in the south Caspian Basin in the scenario with the possibility of a seismic activity on the Khazar or the Astara faults or one of them propagated branches to the north and east with magnitude M ≥ 7, as the closest active faults to the great lake can trigger many large submarine earthquake ruptures or submarine landslides which is potential for generating Tsunamis in the steep southern coast. Manuscript Document

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      8 - Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Kuh Gabbri granitoide, Rafsanjan,
      Issue 27 , Volume 7 , Autumn 2013
      The Kuh-Gabbri granitoid is located at 42 Km east of Rafsanjan in Kerman provinc. This region is small part of Urumieh- Dokhtar magmatic belt of Iran. Intrusive of two granitoid stocks into upper Crataceous limestone and lower Paleocene polygenetic conglomerate, pro Full Text
      The Kuh-Gabbri granitoid is located at 42 Km east of Rafsanjan in Kerman provinc. This region is small part of Urumieh- Dokhtar magmatic belt of Iran. Intrusive of two granitoid stocks into upper Crataceous limestone and lower Paleocene polygenetic conglomerate, produced contact metamorphism. These rocks contain major minerals such as Quartz, Alkali feldspar and Plagioclase; minor minerals as Biotite, Zircon and Opaque. The SiO2 contents range from 75.57 to 76.83 wt%. The majority of the Kuh-e- Gabbri rocks show similar patterns in the trace element plot normalized to primitive mantle and condrite. These rocks are generally enriched in Rb and Th, and depleted in Ba, Sr and Eu. Condrite- normalized REE patterns are moderately LREE enriched white pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The Nb anomaly implies a crustal component. Moreover all data belong to the within- plate granite fild in the tectonic discrimination diagram and those are I- type granite. Felid, petro raphic and geochemical characteristics suggest magmatic origin and crustal source rock under low pressure conditions. Petro raphic and chemical variations were mainly the result of fractional crystallization. Manuscript Document

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      9 - Microfacies, Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Qom Formation, Deh Namak, Northwest of Garmsar
      Jahanbakhsh Daneshian  Asadi Mehmandosti yousef ramezani
      Issue 41 , Volume 0 , Spring 2017
      Deh Namak section is exposed along the most northern point of the Qom Formation, where the Central Iran zone and Alborz zone come together. The study of microfacies, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphic features of the Qom Formation in this area can h Full Text
      Deh Namak section is exposed along the most northern point of the Qom Formation, where the Central Iran zone and Alborz zone come together. The study of microfacies, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphic features of the Qom Formation in this area can help to understand the situation of the Qom sedimentary basin in the northern part, bordering the Alborz zone. 166 samples of the Qom Formation in Deh Namak section in the northwest of Garmsar are investigated. Microfacies analysis of these sedimentary rocks indicates that according to sedimentary environment they consist of nine microfacies belonging to four facies belts including tidal flat, agoon, shoal/reef sediments and slope of platform. Due to the absence of the gravitational and turbidity sediments and abundance of reef/shoal sediments, a rimmed carbonate shelf depositional environment is suggested in which more sediments were precipitated in shallow water. In this model, deep facies of the basin did not spread and the deepest facies belong to the slope. Also, sequence stratigraphic studies show that the Deh Namak section is composed of four sedimentary sequences of third- order, two types II and one type I sequence boundaries were recognized in this formation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Assessment of interpretation methods to calculate aquifer transmissivity from single-well step drawdown aquifer test
       Hatefi  Etebari  Delkhahi Gholam Abbas Fanaei Kheirabad  Shahsavari
      Issue 32 , Volume 8 , Winter 2015
      Since the measured well drawdowns in a single well test does not reflect the aquifer head loss and covering linear and nonlinear well losses, the calculations based on the observed head loss from a pumping well, cannot get a precise estimate of the hydrodynamic paramete Full Text
      Since the measured well drawdowns in a single well test does not reflect the aquifer head loss and covering linear and nonlinear well losses, the calculations based on the observed head loss from a pumping well, cannot get a precise estimate of the hydrodynamic parameters of the aquifer. But when an inexpensive and rapid estimation of aquifer transmissivity is required, using the collected data from a single pumping well is amongst the attractive options. Several methods for estimating borehole loss components has been proposed by various researchers. In this study, methods proposed by Eden-Hazel, Hantush-Biershenk, Kasinow, Miller-Weber and Karami-Younger; suggesting to calculate well loss component (CQn) were assessed to determine the transmissivity of the aquifer using measured head losses from both the pumping well and the adjacent piezometer from some aquifer tests conducted on a number of exploration wells of Khorasan (Razavi and Southern) provinces. The calculated well loss components using Eden-Hazel, Hantush-Biershenk, Kasenow and Miller-Weber methods has a significant difference to the simulated well losses using piezometric data. Karami-Younger method has been able to calculate the CQn value more accurately, about 25% to the simulated value. However, an accurate CQn estimate did not necessarily concluded to an acceptable aquifer transmissivity calculation. In the other words, the results of implementation of this method is more sensitive in sediments with high permeability and lower well losses. Manuscript Document
    Upcoming Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Petrography and geochemistry of igneous rocks and antimony mineralization in Lakhshak, northwest of Zahedan, southeastern Iran
      Mohammad Boomeri *, Halimeh Mojadadi Habib Biabangard
      Abstract: The Lakhshak Sb index is located in northwest of Zahedan in the Sistan suture zone. The geological units of the area are metamorphosed flysch, granitoid pluton, acidic and basic dikes, mineralized and un-mineralized silicic veins. According to geochemical st Full Text
      Abstract: The Lakhshak Sb index is located in northwest of Zahedan in the Sistan suture zone. The geological units of the area are metamorphosed flysch, granitoid pluton, acidic and basic dikes, mineralized and un-mineralized silicic veins. According to geochemical studies, Lakhshak igneous rocks are calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic, metaluminous and belong to volcanic arc, and collisional and post-collisional tectonic settings. The study igneous rocks are characterized by LREE and LILE enrichment relative to HREE and HFSE. Enrichment of Pb and depletion of Zr, Nb and Y are more consistent with melts generated from the lower crust. The Sb mineralization in the Lakhshak is an epithermal type that mainly occurs as quartz-stibnite veins in flysch-like rocks and associated with silicic, argillic and phyllic alterations. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Morphotectonic Investigation of Talkhab and Tozlugl faults and their role in the formation of the Meyghan Wetland, Arak
        Masomeh Molaei
      Meyghan lake of Arak is located at the boundary of the metamorphic zone of Sanandaj- Sirjan and Urmia-Bazman. The two main faults of Talkhab and Tozlugol (Tabarte) play a key role in the formation of this basin by right lateral movement and northwest - south east trend. Full Text
      Meyghan lake of Arak is located at the boundary of the metamorphic zone of Sanandaj- Sirjan and Urmia-Bazman. The two main faults of Talkhab and Tozlugol (Tabarte) play a key role in the formation of this basin by right lateral movement and northwest - south east trend. In this study, morphotectonic indices were investigated to study the tectonic activity of these two faults. Altimeter integral index, Asymmetry index,Stream length gradient index, Basin shap factor Including measured indicators. Investigating the relative active tectonic using the above indicators shows that the Arak region has a moderate to high relative activity. Particularly, the separation region between the two Talkhab and Tozlugol faults is more active than other regions. The graben of the Meyghan Desert is formed due to the activity of the Tabakh and Thouzlugal faults during the Pleistocene by right lateral transpression zone. The southwestern side of the lake is in accordance with the Tozlugol fault. It seems that according to the morphometric studies of this area, the activity of the Talkhab fault is more than the Tozlugol fault and plays a more important role in the formation of the Meyghan lake. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Garmichay metapelites, NW Iran: whole rock chemistry, mineral chemistry, provenance and metamorphic conditions
      Amir Mahamed Mohsen Moayyed Monir Modjarrad
      In order to study the provenance and metamorphic conditions of the Garmichay metapelites located in Northern Miyaneh, NW Iran the whole rock chemistry of this assemblage is investigated. Petrofabric scrutinizes have revealed the syn-tectonic nature of cordierite porphyr Full Text
      In order to study the provenance and metamorphic conditions of the Garmichay metapelites located in Northern Miyaneh, NW Iran the whole rock chemistry of this assemblage is investigated. Petrofabric scrutinizes have revealed the syn-tectonic nature of cordierite porphyroblasts (regional metamorphism) in the metapelites. Besides, C' shear band structures are observed. Two regional metamorphic (RMP1, RMP2), one contact metamorphic (CMP) and two deformation (D1, D2) phases are identified. The major oxide geochemistry implies two sedimentary progenitors: shale and greywacke. Based on major, rare earth and trace elements (Ti, Ni, TiO2, Zr and K2O) the igneous source rock has had andesite to dacite/rhyodacite nature. The chemical index of alteration and weathering indexes (CIA, CIW) imply a medium degree of alteration in the igneous progenitor. The Garmichay metapelites, in comparison with the PAAS and UCC, are enriched in Cs, La and Ce and depleted in Sr, Nb and Ta. The representative samples in the compatibility diagrams lie inside the paragenetic triangles that imply their stable conditions. Finally, based on the standard pseudosections the temperature and pressure range of the highest degree paragenesis has been 535-635 °C and 1-3 kb, respectively. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Determination of paleo-stress based on the study of discontinuities and folds in Zagros Collision Zone Case Study of Kermanshah Region
      سپیده  رضابیک   Mehran Aryan  
      The studied zone is in the Northern part of Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah) the existance deep sea sediments, oceanic crust remnants, platform carbonates, igneous and metamorphosed rock of active margin and carbonate sequence of passive margin that are assembled in the Full Text
      The studied zone is in the Northern part of Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah) the existance deep sea sediments, oceanic crust remnants, platform carbonates, igneous and metamorphosed rock of active margin and carbonate sequence of passive margin that are assembled in the studied area show a tectonical pressure system from the late Cretaceous up to now . This convergent area has provided a very complicated structural zone. This convergent area has provided a very complicated structural zone. The main purpose of this study is stress characteristic analysis in Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah).To recognize and study the arrangement of stress axes a great amount of data has been gathered from the folds axial surface and the faults which are appeared within the rocks specially the radiolaritic rocks. The data includes characteristics of fault surface geometry, fault slip and lineation slip. The stress recording patterns for data in this study is Multiple Inverse Method and comparison with stress position by using folds axial surface. By studing folds we obtained the situation of main stress σ1, σ2 and σ3 respectively is 029, 127, 234and by using the method Multiple Inverse Method, the situation of main stress is obtained 059, 304, 194. Based on the investigations in the study area and measurements on Cretaceous rocks, the results show that the main stress direction since Cretaceous up to now is northeastern with minor changes. The estimations of stress direction were the same in both cracks and faults. As a result, the shortening direction has been constant, so the shortening faults all show one direction of stress. Manuscript Document
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