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    Iranian Geological Quarterly

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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Analysis of geochemical features of sabzevar dust, using Marble Dust Collector (MDCO)
      آرش امینی بهنام  شفیعی
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      Dust is one of the atmospheric phenomena that has adverse environmental effects and consequences. In order to study dusts in Sabzevar, samples were collected at the end of each season in 1390. In this research, sampling containers were installed in 16 locations on t More
      Dust is one of the atmospheric phenomena that has adverse environmental effects and consequences. In order to study dusts in Sabzevar, samples were collected at the end of each season in 1390. In this research, sampling containers were installed in 16 locations on the roofs of houses and governmental offices based on the main and sub geographical directions and trapped samples in MDCO were measured by 0.0001 accuracy scale. For geochemical studies due to the volume of dust collected and the importance of the samples, basic oxides and trace elements of fine dust were measured using atomic absorption and ICP methods. Results has shown that the maximum dust volume were collected in the spring while the concentration of most polluting elements is higher in autumn. In terms of pollution, Cadmium and Zinc are of primary importance in sabzevar due to their very high pollution coefficient. Chromium and Nickle are of secondary importance with being in the range of moderate pollution and significant pollution coefficient. In the current situation, the pollution of elements such as copper, lead and arsenic in the dust of Sabzevar is not critical and worrying. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - The application of Normalized Cumulative Gamma Deviation Log (NCGDL) in sequence stratigraphic analysis and correlation, a case study from the Sarvak Formation, Abadan Plain, SW, Iran
      A. Asaadi A. Imandoust J.  Honarmand ایرج عبدالهی فرد O.R. Salmian
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      Identification of key sequence stratigraphic surfaces is an essential task in geological evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Sarvak Formation with Late Albian-Early Turonian age constitute the important reservoir unit in the Abadan Plain region, SW Iran. This stud More
      Identification of key sequence stratigraphic surfaces is an essential task in geological evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Sarvak Formation with Late Albian-Early Turonian age constitute the important reservoir unit in the Abadan Plain region, SW Iran. This study investigates the application of Normalized Cumulative Gamma Deviation Log (NCGDC) to discriminate and correlate key sequence stratigraphic surfaces in six wells in a giant oil field in the Abadan Plain. To achieve this goal, identified key stratigraphic surfaces from core and thin sections were compared with interpretation of NCGDC method. From sequence stratigraphic point of view and based on the results from geological studies, the Sarvak Formation has been sub-divided into four third-order sequences which are described and interpreted. Two main disconformity surfaces, considered as sequence boundaries, are characterized by features of karstification, dissolution-collapse brecciation, and development of paleosol horizons. Generally, positive surfaces correspond to maximum flooding surfaces and negative surfaces occur at sequence boundary. Comparison of the results shows that, the identified sequence by NCGDC method can be effectively used for discrimination and correlation of sequences in different carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs in the field scale. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the foram and diatome layers equivalent deposits based on calcareous nannofossils in the Gorgan Plain: A reference to evolution and paleogeography of the South Caspian Basin
      M. Sharafi N. Mousavi M. Moradpour B. Beiranvand A. Bayet-Goll F. Taati
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      Paleocene-Miocene sediments in the central part of the Gorgan Plain were studied to evaluate lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and reconstruction of the paleogeography of the South Caspian Basin (SCB). Based on nannofossils distribution in the studied interval, the fol More
      Paleocene-Miocene sediments in the central part of the Gorgan Plain were studied to evaluate lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and reconstruction of the paleogeography of the South Caspian Basin (SCB). Based on nannofossils distribution in the studied interval, the following points were identified: Foram layers equivalent sediments have Thanetian –Eocene age and Upper Maykop- Diatom equivalent sediments have Middle-Late Miocene age. Evaluation of the nannofossils distribution in the studied interval has clarified a major unconformity between lower Paleocene-Eocene sediments and the upper Middle-late Miocene sediments. This unconformity is coincident with collisional event of the Afro-Arabia and Eurasia Plates and rising of the surrounding mountain ranges around the Caspian Basin including Alborz and Kopet-Dagh Mountains. Nannofossils distribution of the studied succession displays that the SCB was connected to the Black Sea and Mediterranean Basin in the lower Middle Miocene and was isolated in the Middle-Late Miocene. The interpreted east-west running seismic lines displays a clear increase in the sediment thickness and accommodation space from eastern to western part of the Gorgan Plain. The higher available accommodation space from east to west of the Gorgan Plain led to a delay in the subaerial exposure in the western part of the Gorgan Plain due to rising of the Kopet-Dagh and Alborz Ranges. This interpretation is consistent with the lack of the Paleocene-Eocene sediments and presence of the Cretaceous sediments below the major unconformity in the eastern part of the Gorgan Plain and presence of the Paleocene-Eocene sediment below the unconformity in the studied area. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Facies analysis and sedimentary environment of the Jeirud Formation in Garmabdar section, central Alborz: with emphasis on paleoredox conditions during deposition of black shales
      Nahid Karimi Najmeh  Etemad-Saeed Aram Bayet-Goll Afshin  Zohdi Tomas Kumpan
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      The late Devonian has been associated with major global climate changes, widespread anoxia events, and the Hangenberg Crisis. The main aim of this study is to explore the relationship between paleoenvironment and paleoredox condition during deposition of the lower Devon More
      The late Devonian has been associated with major global climate changes, widespread anoxia events, and the Hangenberg Crisis. The main aim of this study is to explore the relationship between paleoenvironment and paleoredox condition during deposition of the lower Devonian Jeirud Formation in the Garmabdar section, northeast of Tehran. The Jeirud Formation in the Garmabdar section, with a thickness of about 280 m, is composed of siliciclastics, carbonates, carbonate-siliciclastic hybrids and phosphorite deposits. Sedimentary facies analysis led to recognition of three siliciclastic facies associations related to estuarine environments under the influence of waves, shoreface and offshore and two carbonate facies associations related to intertidal and subtidal environments. Moreover, the geochemical paleoredox proxies (such as U/Th and V/Cr) also suggest prevailing anoxic conditions during deposition of black shales and phosphorites in the studied section. In overall, these results suggest that there is a good agreement between the depth of the depositional environment and anoxic conditions during deposition of black shales of the Jeirud Formation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Exploration analysis and determining the relationship between mineralization and faults as a new exploration key in the Sirjan-Beshneh copper deposit
      Reza Ahmadi S.J. Hosseini Shahraki
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      Sirjan-Beshneh copper deposit with 0.5 kilometer area is located in Kerman province 80 kilometers west of Sirjan city. The variety of exploration activities including remote-sensing, field traverses, geophysical explorations, surface explorations comprising surface samp More
      Sirjan-Beshneh copper deposit with 0.5 kilometer area is located in Kerman province 80 kilometers west of Sirjan city. The variety of exploration activities including remote-sensing, field traverses, geophysical explorations, surface explorations comprising surface sampling and geochemical analysis of 94 samples, drilling and surveying three trenches with sampling and analysis of six samples as well as drilling of eight deep exploration borehole with the total length of 414.5 meter, have been carried out in the metallic deposit. All faults in the region were mapped based on the remote-sensing and structural geology operations of the region. In the present research, all exploration activities carried out in the Beshneh copper deposit were analyzed through investigating their relationship with the faults in the region. To achieve this goal, various techniques including drawing rose-diagram of faults, processing of resistivity and chargeability data of rectangle survey and smoothed inversion of data for five dipole-dipole profiles, imaging isograde maps for the surface and trench samples as well as 3-D modeling of exploration boreholes assays of the region were employed. The results showed that locations of mineralization related to the fractures and faults present in the region since the trend of most mineralized veins is along the main faults. At the end, in order to complete the explorations of the previous stages to get a better recognition of the deposit, drilling of several new exploration boreholes was proposed based on all performed studies and integrating obtained results as an exploration key.. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Carbon and oxygen stable isotope study of the Majdar travertine deposits, southeast of Ardabil
      َAli Lotfi Bakhsh
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      Freshwater carbonates differ from each other according to isotopic geochemical properties. The study of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes is one of the most important study tools for carbonates, including travertine deposits. In Majdar area, which is located in the west More
      Freshwater carbonates differ from each other according to isotopic geochemical properties. The study of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes is one of the most important study tools for carbonates, including travertine deposits. In Majdar area, which is located in the western Alborz-Azerbaijan tectonic zone, Quaternary travertine deposits are located in the Eocene porphyry andesite volcanic units. Based on mineralogical studies, travertines are mainly composed of aragonite. The mean values of δ13C and δ18O isotopes of travertines in the study area are + 6.47 and -8.77, respectively, which indicates the thermogenic origin of travertines. Also, the mean value of δ13C (CO2) is -2.73, which suggests an inorganic and endogenic origin for CO2. It is thought that CO2-rich hydrothermal fluids have provided the calcium bicarbonate ions needed to form travertine after circulation within the calcareous unit in the area and reacting with it. Then, these fluids ascended through the fault systems and deposited travertine on the surface. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Petrology of alkaline lavas in North Jirandeh (East of Lushan)
      A. Soleimani Sh. Haghnazar M Vosoughi Abedini S. Hakimi Asiabar
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      In the north of Jirandeh and east of Lushan, which are located in the mountains south of the central Alborz, a series of volcanic rocks are unconformablly located on the Middle Eocene limestone. These rocks have alkaline affinity of different types of lamprophyre and ar More
      In the north of Jirandeh and east of Lushan, which are located in the mountains south of the central Alborz, a series of volcanic rocks are unconformablly located on the Middle Eocene limestone. These rocks have alkaline affinity of different types of lamprophyre and are studied for the first time from the petrology point of view. The texture of these rocks is porphyric to microporphic with microlithic matrix. The phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of the collected samples are generally olivine, alkaline pyroxenes and biotite, which are located in olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, very fine nepheline crystals, apatite and metal ores groundmass. Geochemical studies of these rocks indicate that these rocks are alkaline lamprophyres and the magma is the result of partial melting of an asthenospheric mantle source similar to OIB. They are classified in garnet lherzolite facies and were emplaced in an intercontinental rift tectonic environment. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - A suitable algorithm for identifying changes in micro-landforms using UAV images. Case study: Barg-e- Jahan area in Jajrud region (2015-2016)
      M.H. Tavakol M. Ghahroudi H. Sadough Kh. Alinoori
      Iss. 63 , Vol. 16 , Autumn 2022
      One of the main and most important topics of geomorphology is the identification and evaluation of microlandform changes. Their recognition and spatial distribution in order to understand and evaluate changes, stability studies and regional planning is one of the basic More
      One of the main and most important topics of geomorphology is the identification and evaluation of microlandform changes. Their recognition and spatial distribution in order to understand and evaluate changes, stability studies and regional planning is one of the basic needs of applied geomorphology. Barg-e- Jahan area is located in Jajroud catchment area affected by many environmental changes. In this study, based on micro-scale geomorphological approach, using UAV images along with field survey in the Barg-e- Jahan area, microlandforms changes were investigated. UAV images with a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm were obtained from the Ministry of Energy between 2015 and 2016. These images were corrected using ENVI 5.1 and Arc Map 10.3 software, and then the desired algorithms were implemented via coding in Python. Changes were investigated with machine learning algorithms and random forest models, SVM with RBF kernel, random forest with features extracted from CNN networks, and SVM with linear kernel with features extracted from deep neural networks. Results showed that the SVM-RBF model is less accurate than other models with 88% accuracy, so the separation between the classes was limited. In the random forest, 92% of the classes were distinguishable with linear boundaries. The near-ideal model in the random forest algorithm with deep learning was observed with an accuracy of 96%. Investigations showed that most of the changes in microlandforms in this model were related to the change of vegetation cover to soil by 45.03%, and in the next place, the change of sheet wash erosion by 22.05%. According to the obtained results and field observations in 2017, it was determined that the flood of 2017 in Barg-e-Jahan area has caused major changes in the area. Its greatest impact was on the vegetation and the diagram shows at the highest degree of disturbance. In this period, the surface flow and gully formation in the area increased and it shows the high level of erosion and great changes of microlandforms in the study area. Manuscript profile
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Introduction of Mari Copper Deposit as a Stratabound Manto-Type Copper Deposit in Tarom Zone, Northwest of Iran
      Mehadi Moradi Sajad Maghfori Mohsen Moayyed Vahid Faridasl
      Iss. 38 , Vol. 10 , Summer 2016
      Similar to other deposits of this type in the world, three major stages could be considered for mineralization in Mari copper deposit. The Mari Copper deposit is located in the northwest of Iran and Tarom metallogenic zone in the north of Zanjan. The ore-body is strata- More
      Similar to other deposits of this type in the world, three major stages could be considered for mineralization in Mari copper deposit. The Mari Copper deposit is located in the northwest of Iran and Tarom metallogenic zone in the north of Zanjan. The ore-body is strata-bound and hosted by the Eocene mega-porphyritic andesites. The major copper sulfides are bornite, chalcocite, and chalcopyrite associated mainly with pyrite that represent open-space filling, disseminated, vein-veinlet, and replacement textures. The volcanic rocks of the study area mostly represent intermediate to acidic composition with high potassium shoshonitic magmatic series related to intra-arc rift environments. Wall rock alterations include carbonatization, chloritization, epidotization, and sericitization. The abundances of Cu and Ag in fresh mega-porphyritic andesite are up to 3200 and 216 ppm respectively. Based on the main characteristics of Mari ore body such as tectonic setting, host rock, strata-bound form, mineralogy, metal content, and wall rock alterations and comparison of these features with Manto - type copper deposits, Mari Cu deposit can be introduced as a Manto -type Cu deposit in NW Iran. The first stage includes submarine volcanic activity and eruption of mega-porphyritic andesitic lava associated with regional propylitic alteration. In the second stage, the early diagenesis and the activity of sulfate-reducing micro-organisms resulted in the generation of pyrite in the form of open-space filling and disseminated in the mega-porphyritic andesite. Finally, in the third stage, increasing of the thickness of sediments, basin subsidence, and burial diagenesis accompanied with the entry of metal-rich fluids into the reduced host rock, caused the replacement of the first stage pyrites by copper sulfides and mineralization in the Mari deposit. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Study of mineral chemistry, geothermobarometry and tectonic setting of gabbroic rocks from north-west Hamedan, Iran
      عادل ساکی Hooshang Pourkaseb Alireza Zarasvandi Milad Jahani Maryam Dorani
      Iss. 53 , Vol. 14 , Spring 2020
      The study area is geologically located in the northern area of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Based on petrographic study, the main minerals consists of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole and biotite and the accessory minerals are chlorite, muscovite, ilmenite and More
      The study area is geologically located in the northern area of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Based on petrographic study, the main minerals consists of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole and biotite and the accessory minerals are chlorite, muscovite, ilmenite and zircon. The obtained results from the mineral chemistry in this study indicate that the amphiboles are calcic amphiboles, and in terms of chemical composition they can be called pargasit, tschermakite and magnesiohomblende. Plagioclases are also andesian. Due to the low Na2O content, it can be concluded, that tectonically these amphiboles are of S-Amph type and are related to the subduction zones. Based on the high levels of Al2O3, the origin of amphiboles is mantle-type. Therefore, due to the ratio of Fetot (Fetot + Mg+2) to AlIv, which is less than 0.6, the oxygen fugacity was high. On the other hand, the water levels vary from 2 to 2.3 for hornblende crystallization. Different methods were used to perform thermobarometry, the best of which showed that the formation temperature of gabbroic mass has been in the range of 700°C (in average) and a pressure of 4.45- 7.52 Kb. According to the estimated pressures, the magma was originated at a depth of 25-30 Km, which is near the Moho discontinuity. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Optimization of DRASIC Model for assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution in Kashan Aquifer using statistical methods and sensitivity analysis
      faeghe samadi
      Iss. 35 , Vol. 9 , Autumn 2015
      In this study, the optimized DRASTIC model parameters and land use layer (LU) were used to assess specific vulnerability in Kashan aquifer using statistical methods. Information layers were prepared, rated (deterministic and fuzzy-statistical), weighted (original and st More
      In this study, the optimized DRASTIC model parameters and land use layer (LU) were used to assess specific vulnerability in Kashan aquifer using statistical methods. Information layers were prepared, rated (deterministic and fuzzy-statistical), weighted (original and statistical) and combined (by Index-Overlay method) in GIS environment. For optimization of DRASTIC model, nonlinear regression for fuzzy-statistical rating (scaling) and Pearson correlation coefficients between nitrate concentrations and scaling parameters of DRASTIC model and sensitivity analysis (removal and single-parameter) were performed to determine and modify weighted parameters. As a result, RASIC-LU model with statistical rating and weighting, single-parameter sensitivity analysis, determined the best selection model based on correlation coefficient = 61.1%, P-Value= 0.001 and with parameters of net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, impact of vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity and land use with weight values of 2.50, 4.63, 4.15, 3.03, 1.96 and 2.00 respectively. According to this model, western and southern parts of the aquifer has a high and very high pollution risk due to high net recharge, pollutant land use and coarse-grain material in the impact of vadose zone, soil and aquifer media. In addition, sensitivity analysis based on mean squares error (MSE) indicated that this model is more sensitive to removal and increase of parameters weight of land use, soil media, impact of vadose zone, aquifer media, net recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and shows a decreasing ternd, respectivily. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Comparison of the MLP and RBF Neural Networks for the Determination of Confined Aquifer Parameters
      Tahereh Azari Nozar Samani
      Iss. 36 , Vol. 9 , Winter 2020
      In this paper, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are designed for the determination of confined aquifer parameters: transmissibility and storage coefficient. The networks are trained for the well function of c More
      In this paper, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are designed for the determination of confined aquifer parameters: transmissibility and storage coefficient. The networks are trained for the well function of confined aquifers. By applying the principal component analysis (PCA) on the training data sets the topology of the MLP and RBF networks is reduced and fixed to [1×12×1] and [1×14×1], respectively regardless of number of records in the pumping test data. The networks generate the optimal match point coordinates for any individual real pumping test data set. The match point coordinates are then incorporated with Theis analytical solution (1935) and the aquifer parameter values are determined. The generalization ability and performance of the developed networks is evaluated with 100000 sets of synthetic data and their accuracy is compared with that of type curve matching technique by two sets of real pumping test data. The results showed that though both MLP and RBF networks are able to determine the confined aquifers parameters and eliminate graphical error inherent in the type curve matching technique but the MLP network is more accurate than the RBF network. Therefore, the proposed MLP network is recommended as an accurate automatic and fast procedure for the confined aquifer parameters estimation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Seismic hazard assessment of the city of Khoy using deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis approaches
      Nasim Rahmani  Abasfam
      Iss. 30 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2014
      Construction of new cities or development of old towns in an area requires geological and geophysical (seismic) studies. The city of Khoy is one of the developing cities that have to be study. Therefore, the Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA More
      Construction of new cities or development of old towns in an area requires geological and geophysical (seismic) studies. The city of Khoy is one of the developing cities that have to be study. Therefore, the Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA and PSHA) approaches have been used to assess seismic hazards and earthquake risk in the city. For this purpose, analyses have been carried out considering historic and instrumented earthquakes, geologic and seismotectonic parameters of the region covering a radius of 100 km with the city of Khoy in the center. Therefore, the main faults and fault zones in the study area were studied and length and distance of each fault from the center of the city of Khoy was calculated. At the next step, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) have been measured using both DSHA and PSHA approaches and also equations presented by different researchers. DSHA Results show that the MCE and PGA values are 6.5 and 0.31g, respectively. PSHA results indicated that the MCE evaluated value is 6.1 for a 0.64 probability in a 50-years period. The period of this earthquake is 110 years and its probability will be 0.009 per a year. The occurrence probability of earthquakes with magnitude equal or greater than 7.1 is 10% and for earthquakes with magnitude equal or greater than 6.3 is 50% for the study area. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Assessment of interpretation methods to calculate aquifer transmissivity from single-well step drawdown aquifer test
       Hatefi  Etebari  Delkhahi Gholam Abbas Fanaei Kheirabad  Shahsavari
      Iss. 32 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2015
      Since the measured well drawdowns in a single well test does not reflect the aquifer head loss and covering linear and nonlinear well losses, the calculations based on the observed head loss from a pumping well, cannot get a precise estimate of the hydrodynamic paramete More
      Since the measured well drawdowns in a single well test does not reflect the aquifer head loss and covering linear and nonlinear well losses, the calculations based on the observed head loss from a pumping well, cannot get a precise estimate of the hydrodynamic parameters of the aquifer. But when an inexpensive and rapid estimation of aquifer transmissivity is required, using the collected data from a single pumping well is amongst the attractive options. Several methods for estimating borehole loss components has been proposed by various researchers. In this study, methods proposed by Eden-Hazel, Hantush-Biershenk, Kasinow, Miller-Weber and Karami-Younger; suggesting to calculate well loss component (CQn) were assessed to determine the transmissivity of the aquifer using measured head losses from both the pumping well and the adjacent piezometer from some aquifer tests conducted on a number of exploration wells of Khorasan (Razavi and Southern) provinces. The calculated well loss components using Eden-Hazel, Hantush-Biershenk, Kasenow and Miller-Weber methods has a significant difference to the simulated well losses using piezometric data. Karami-Younger method has been able to calculate the CQn value more accurately, about 25% to the simulated value. However, an accurate CQn estimate did not necessarily concluded to an acceptable aquifer transmissivity calculation. In the other words, the results of implementation of this method is more sensitive in sediments with high permeability and lower well losses. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Evaluation of the environmental impacts of ore by means of pastakia method (case study: bafgh north anomaly iron ore)
      Lamberini Papadopoulou Mohammad reza  Elmi Ali reza ehsanzadeh سجاد  بهرامی
      Iss. 36 , Vol. 9 , Winter 2020
      Evaluating the environmental effects is one of the appropriate ways to achieve the sustainable development that can be considered as a planning tool for managers and programmers. The environmental impacts of Bafgh Anomaly Iron ore have been studied. In this regard, the More
      Evaluating the environmental effects is one of the appropriate ways to achieve the sustainable development that can be considered as a planning tool for managers and programmers. The environmental impacts of Bafgh Anomaly Iron ore have been studied. In this regard, the most important environmental and economical-social factors that are influenced by project were identified by preparing the checklist from experts and proficient’s opinions. Subsequently, based on the Pastakia matrix method, the environmental impact assessment of project was carried out in both construction and exploitation steps. Results show that 2 positive medium effects, 1 positive low effect, 4 positive negligible effects, 7 negative negligible effects, 2 negative low effects and 3 negative medium effects are observed in environments in structural step, while 2 positive medium effects, 2 positive low effects, 3 positive negligible effects, 5 negative negligible effects, 2 negative low effects and 3 negative medium effects exist in exploitation step. Also, the environmental management and monitoring was prepared for all divisions, so that, in physical division, the air, soil and sound parameters should be continuously measured, in biological division, diversity, density, regeneration and migration of and fauna and flora should be controlled seasonally, and also the leakage and dispersion of sewages and wastes and dusts should be continuously monitored. About natural events, crisis management and risk evaluation should be done seasonally. Also, Public contribution and attaining satisfaction of society and their continuous notification and increasing the environmental knowledge of staff should be performed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Shirinabad clay-bauxite deposit, south-east of Gorgan
        Zahra Moridi
      Iss. 39 , Vol. 10 , Autumn 2016
      The Shirinabad clay-bauxite deposit with more than 1 km long and about 8 m in thickness is located in 60 km south-east of Gorgan. The Shirinabad deposit has been developed as a stratiform horizon along the contact zone of Triassic dolomitic limestones and Jurassic sh More
      The Shirinabad clay-bauxite deposit with more than 1 km long and about 8 m in thickness is located in 60 km south-east of Gorgan. The Shirinabad deposit has been developed as a stratiform horizon along the contact zone of Triassic dolomitic limestones and Jurassic shales and sandstones. The basal contact zone of the horizon is mainly undulatory, whereas the upper contact zone is concordant with the hanging-wall shales and sandstones. The rocks within the horizon show pelitomorphic, microgranular, oolitic and pisolitic textures. Textural analysis indicates both allochthonous and autochtonous origins for the Shirinabad deposit. Based on textural and mineralogical evidences the deposit can be divided into four distinct units. Kaolinite, anatase, routile, bohemite, hematite, goethite and berthierine are the principal constituents. From geochemical data, it is concluded that the Shirinabad deposit probably originated from basaltic volcanic rocks. Combination of mineralogical and geochemical data shows that the Shirinabad deposit formed in two stages. First, bauxite materials and clay minerals were developed as authigenic bauxitization processes of alkaline basaltic parent rock. Then, these materials were transported to karst depressions and formed the Shirinabad clay-bauxite deposit. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Microfacies, Sedimentary Environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Qom Formation, Deh Namak, Northwest of Garmsar
      Jahanbakhsh Daneshian  Asadi Mehmandosti yousef ramezani
      Iss. 41 , Vol. 0 , Spring 2017
      Deh Namak section is exposed along the most northern point of the Qom Formation, where the Central Iran zone and Alborz zone come together. The study of microfacies, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphic features of the Qom Formation in this area can h More
      Deh Namak section is exposed along the most northern point of the Qom Formation, where the Central Iran zone and Alborz zone come together. The study of microfacies, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphic features of the Qom Formation in this area can help to understand the situation of the Qom sedimentary basin in the northern part, bordering the Alborz zone. 166 samples of the Qom Formation in Deh Namak section in the northwest of Garmsar are investigated. Microfacies analysis of these sedimentary rocks indicates that according to sedimentary environment they consist of nine microfacies belonging to four facies belts including tidal flat, agoon, shoal/reef sediments and slope of platform. Due to the absence of the gravitational and turbidity sediments and abundance of reef/shoal sediments, a rimmed carbonate shelf depositional environment is suggested in which more sediments were precipitated in shallow water. In this model, deep facies of the basin did not spread and the deepest facies belong to the slope. Also, sequence stratigraphic studies show that the Deh Namak section is composed of four sedimentary sequences of third- order, two types II and one type I sequence boundaries were recognized in this formation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Geochemistry and origin of orogenic gold in Qolqoleh area, Kurdistan: using fluid inclusion and stable isotope methods
       Taghipour  Makizadeh فرهاد  احمدنژاد
      Iss. 30 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2014
      The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt, about 50 km south-west of Saqqez. The rocks in the vicinity of the Qolqoleh deposit consist predominantly of Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of phyllite, meta-l More
      The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt, about 50 km south-west of Saqqez. The rocks in the vicinity of the Qolqoleh deposit consist predominantly of Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of phyllite, meta-limestone, cholorite- sericite schist, metavolcanic and granitic intrusive rocks that have undergone greenschist facies metamorphism. Geochemical studies indicate that gold mineralization occur in the sulfide-quartz veins. Based on the number of phases present at room temperature and their microthermometric behavior, three fluid inclusion types were recognized: type I mono phase aqueous inclusions, type II two-phase aqueous inclusions (aqueous + vapor), that based on Th could be subdivided into two groups: type IIa show salinities of 5–13 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 205 to 255 °C. Type IIb with salinities of 15–19 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 335 to 385 C. Type III three-phase shows carbonic–aqueous inclusions (aqueous–LCO2–VCO2) with salinities of 9–13 wt.% NaCl equivalent and Th-tot of 345–385 °C. Furthermore, the mean values of density of ore-forming fluids, pressure and depth of mineralization are 0.79-0.93 gr/cm3, 2 Kbar and 7 Km respectively. On the basis of these data, the Qolqoleh gold deposit is categorized in meso zonal orogenic gold deposit. The δ_0^18 values of the ore-forming fluids are in the range of 7.2‰ to 8‰ and the D values are from -35.27‰ to -40.23‰, which indicate a source of deep-originated metamorphic water that is partially mixed with shallow meteoric water. The change of tectonic regime from compressional to extensional in association with the continuously increasing geothermal gradient, results in remobilization of large amounts of metamorphic fluids. Mixing of ascending orogenic drive fluids with descending meteoric fluids led to deposition of gold by sulfide minerals. Manuscript profile
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      1 - Petrography and geochemistry of igneous rocks and antimony mineralization in Lakhshak, northwest of Zahedan, southeastern Iran
      Mohammad Boomeri *, Halimeh Mojadadi Habib Biabangard
      Abstract: The Lakhshak Sb index is located in northwest of Zahedan in the Sistan suture zone. The geological units of the area are metamorphosed flysch, granitoid pluton, acidic and basic dikes, mineralized and un-mineralized silicic veins. According to geochemical st More
      Abstract: The Lakhshak Sb index is located in northwest of Zahedan in the Sistan suture zone. The geological units of the area are metamorphosed flysch, granitoid pluton, acidic and basic dikes, mineralized and un-mineralized silicic veins. According to geochemical studies, Lakhshak igneous rocks are calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic, metaluminous and belong to volcanic arc, and collisional and post-collisional tectonic settings. The study igneous rocks are characterized by LREE and LILE enrichment relative to HREE and HFSE. Enrichment of Pb and depletion of Zr, Nb and Y are more consistent with melts generated from the lower crust. The Sb mineralization in the Lakhshak is an epithermal type that mainly occurs as quartz-stibnite veins in flysch-like rocks and associated with silicic, argillic and phyllic alterations. Manuscript profile

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      2 - Morphotectonic Investigation of Talkhab and Tozlugl faults and their role in the formation of the Meyghan Wetland, Arak
        Masomeh Molaei
      Meyghan lake of Arak is located at the boundary of the metamorphic zone of Sanandaj- Sirjan and Urmia-Bazman. The two main faults of Talkhab and Tozlugol (Tabarte) play a key role in the formation of this basin by right lateral movement and northwest - south east trend. More
      Meyghan lake of Arak is located at the boundary of the metamorphic zone of Sanandaj- Sirjan and Urmia-Bazman. The two main faults of Talkhab and Tozlugol (Tabarte) play a key role in the formation of this basin by right lateral movement and northwest - south east trend. In this study, morphotectonic indices were investigated to study the tectonic activity of these two faults. Altimeter integral index, Asymmetry index,Stream length gradient index, Basin shap factor Including measured indicators. Investigating the relative active tectonic using the above indicators shows that the Arak region has a moderate to high relative activity. Particularly, the separation region between the two Talkhab and Tozlugol faults is more active than other regions. The graben of the Meyghan Desert is formed due to the activity of the Tabakh and Thouzlugal faults during the Pleistocene by right lateral transpression zone. The southwestern side of the lake is in accordance with the Tozlugol fault. It seems that according to the morphometric studies of this area, the activity of the Talkhab fault is more than the Tozlugol fault and plays a more important role in the formation of the Meyghan lake. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Garmichay metapelites, NW Iran: whole rock chemistry, mineral chemistry, provenance and metamorphic conditions
      Amir Mahamed Mohsen Moayyed Monir Modjarrad
      In order to study the provenance and metamorphic conditions of the Garmichay metapelites located in Northern Miyaneh, NW Iran the whole rock chemistry of this assemblage is investigated. Petrofabric scrutinizes have revealed the syn-tectonic nature of cordierite porphyr More
      In order to study the provenance and metamorphic conditions of the Garmichay metapelites located in Northern Miyaneh, NW Iran the whole rock chemistry of this assemblage is investigated. Petrofabric scrutinizes have revealed the syn-tectonic nature of cordierite porphyroblasts (regional metamorphism) in the metapelites. Besides, C' shear band structures are observed. Two regional metamorphic (RMP1, RMP2), one contact metamorphic (CMP) and two deformation (D1, D2) phases are identified. The major oxide geochemistry implies two sedimentary progenitors: shale and greywacke. Based on major, rare earth and trace elements (Ti, Ni, TiO2, Zr and K2O) the igneous source rock has had andesite to dacite/rhyodacite nature. The chemical index of alteration and weathering indexes (CIA, CIW) imply a medium degree of alteration in the igneous progenitor. The Garmichay metapelites, in comparison with the PAAS and UCC, are enriched in Cs, La and Ce and depleted in Sr, Nb and Ta. The representative samples in the compatibility diagrams lie inside the paragenetic triangles that imply their stable conditions. Finally, based on the standard pseudosections the temperature and pressure range of the highest degree paragenesis has been 535-635 °C and 1-3 kb, respectively. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Determination of paleo-stress based on the study of discontinuities and folds in Zagros Collision Zone Case Study of Kermanshah Region
      سپیده  رضابیک   Mehran Aryan  
      The studied zone is in the Northern part of Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah) the existance deep sea sediments, oceanic crust remnants, platform carbonates, igneous and metamorphosed rock of active margin and carbonate sequence of passive margin that are assembled in the More
      The studied zone is in the Northern part of Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah) the existance deep sea sediments, oceanic crust remnants, platform carbonates, igneous and metamorphosed rock of active margin and carbonate sequence of passive margin that are assembled in the studied area show a tectonical pressure system from the late Cretaceous up to now . This convergent area has provided a very complicated structural zone. This convergent area has provided a very complicated structural zone. The main purpose of this study is stress characteristic analysis in Zagros Suture Zone (Kermanshah).To recognize and study the arrangement of stress axes a great amount of data has been gathered from the folds axial surface and the faults which are appeared within the rocks specially the radiolaritic rocks. The data includes characteristics of fault surface geometry, fault slip and lineation slip. The stress recording patterns for data in this study is Multiple Inverse Method and comparison with stress position by using folds axial surface. By studing folds we obtained the situation of main stress σ1, σ2 and σ3 respectively is 029, 127, 234and by using the method Multiple Inverse Method, the situation of main stress is obtained 059, 304, 194. Based on the investigations in the study area and measurements on Cretaceous rocks, the results show that the main stress direction since Cretaceous up to now is northeastern with minor changes. The estimations of stress direction were the same in both cracks and faults. As a result, the shortening direction has been constant, so the shortening faults all show one direction of stress. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Integration of remote sensing and magnetometry methods for exploration of iron deposit in the Maragh district of Bandar e Charak
      Reza Ahmadi Abdorreza  Gharah Sheikh Bayat
      In the present research, to identify potential and existence of possible iron ore-bearing in the Maragh district of Bandar e Charak in Hormozgan province, first, remote sensing studies using Aster sensor data through ENVI were conducted. Afterward the preliminary explor More
      In the present research, to identify potential and existence of possible iron ore-bearing in the Maragh district of Bandar e Charak in Hormozgan province, first, remote sensing studies using Aster sensor data through ENVI were conducted. Afterward the preliminary exploration of promised regions was performed by magnetometry method. Remote sensing operation of the region data comprises preprocessing sequences of geometric correction by image-to-image method and atmospheric correction as well as processing techniques containing false color composite, banding ratio, least square-fit, directed principal component analysis and finally supervised classification through spectral angle mapper method. Because of this process, alteration-zoning map associated with iron mineralization in the studied region was produced. Magnetic data was acquired in an area of approximately 11.2 km2 in 1913 measuring stations using a proton magnetometer. Geosoft Oasis montaj software was employed for processing operation and qualitative interpretation of magnetic data via applying various corrections and filters including reduce to pole, upward continuation up to the variety of elevations, low-pass filter, derivative filters containing total horizontal derivative and analytical signal. At the end, to investigate the trend of magnetic anomalies observed on the surface, determination of approximate shape of the deposit and estimation of its depth, 3-D inverse modeling of the data was carried out. The results of the research through integrating two methods of remote sensing and magnetometry with 3-D inverse modeling of magnetic data, reveal that Maragh district has a high potential from viewpoint of iron ore-bearing. The results of this research will be applied for all of the geosciences practitioner especially geologists and exploration engineers. Manuscript profile
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    Research Institute of Applied Sciences (ACECR)
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    Adabi Mohamad hosein (Shahid Beheshti University)
    Executive Editor
    Editorial Board
    Hamidreza Naseri (Shahid Beheshti University) Mohamadreza Rezaei (Australia University) Ezatollah Raeisi (Shiraz University) Abdollah Saeidi (Geological Survey & Mineral Explorations of Iran) Seyed kazem Alavi panah (Tehran University) Fereidoon Ghazban (Tehran University) Seyed mahmood Fatemi aghda (Kharazmi University) Manuchehr Ghorashi (Geological Survey & Mineral Explorations of Iran) Mohamad Ghavidel (Tehran University) Farid Moore (Shiraz University) Reza Moosavi harami (Ferdowsi University) Saeid Mirzaei (ACECR) Mansour Vosooghi abedini (Shahid Beheshti University) Asghar Kohandel (ACECR)
    Print ISSN: 1735-7128
    Online ISSN:1735-7125
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